Various Bible study guides in subjects pertaining to

New Earth prophecy, as taught by Paul Phelps. 


For evildoers shall be cut off: but those that wait upon the LORD,

they shall inherit the earth.      Psalm 37:9






Passover is an annual commemoration feast specified by Moses

for the fourteenth day of the first lunar month of spring, at even.


The Passover Feast commemorates a Biblical Event

that is personal and relevant for all Bible believers. 


A Biblical Holy Day guide by Paul Phelps. 

After several years of study this writing was completed in 2000. 




     In the days before Passover all leavened material is removed from the home
(Ex. 12:15); this spring cleaning is called b’di-kat KHA-mets.  In similar manner
we must clean our hearts (because leaven is a symbol of sin).  In every year of
each generation each of us should regard ourselves as having been personally
freed from the slavery of Egypt; Ex. 12.  Haggadah means “the telling.”  This is
the Biblical story of the miraculous transition from slavery to freedom and from
spiritual darkness to light.  It tells about God’s involvement with humanity. 


     There is the Sèder Plate for the displaying of ‘symbolic foods.’  Sèder means
arrangement.  There are bitter herbs (ma-ROR), a lamb shank bone (z’RO-a’), a
sweet apple mixture (kha-RO-set), a roasted egg (bei-TSAH), parsley (kar-pas)
—and a cup of salt water.  There is plenty of unleavened bread
(called mat-za),
and there is wine (or grape juice), served individually in cups.  Passover is the
time of unleavened bread, so matza is served and eaten at any time during the
Sèder meal and the following week.  Wine is not the only dinner beverage; it is
recommended that another more usual beverage be served as a main drink. 


Candles are lit (traditionally by a woman), and a prayer is said:

Ba-RUKH a-tah, a-do-NAI e-lo-HEI-nu, MEH-lekh ha-o’LAM, a-SHER ki-d’SHA-nu

bi-d’var-OH, u-vi-SHMO ah-NAKH-nu mad’li-KIM ha-nei-ROT shel YOM TOV. 

“Blessed are you, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe, who sets us apart

by his word, and in whose Name we kindle the festival lights.” 


The four cups of wine indicate four given purposes of God (Ex. 6:6-7):

(1) I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians,

(2) I will rescue you from their bondage,

(3) I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments,

(4) I will take you as my people, and I will be your God. 


We raise the first cup (the ‘ka-DESH’) and bless the LORD with this prayer:

Ba-RUKH a-tah, a-do-NAI el-o-HEI-nu, MEH-lekh ha-o’LAM,

bo-reh PREE ha-GEH-fen. 

“Blessed are you, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe,

who creates the fruit of the vine.” 


     As Jesus the Messiah began his last Passover Sèder, he shared this first cup
with his disciples, saying, “Take this and divide it among yourselves: for I say
to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.”
(Luke 22:17-18).    (Drink the first cup.) 


     We perform the ‘hand’ washing ceremony (u-r’KHATS) from a bowl of water
with a Psalm 24:3-4 prayer, and afterwards dry our hands, but at the same time
recall that at this ceremony Jesus chose instead to wash the ‘feet’ of his disciples
(John 13:5,12-14). 



     Passover is a Spring festival.  The green herb parsley (kar-pas) pictures life. 
When we dip green herbs in the cup of salt water we recall the suffering of our
ancestors and remember that life has its sorrow.  We dip and eat with a prayer:

Ba-RUKH a-tah, a-do-NAI el-o-HEI-nu, MEH-lekh ha-o’LAM,

bo-reh PREE ha-a-da-MAH. 

“Blessed are you, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe,

who creates the fruit of the ground.” 


     By tradition a young child speaks forth a ceremonial comment, (ref. Ex. 12:26):

MA nish-ta-nah ha-LAI-lah ha-zeh mi-KOL ha-lei-LOT! 

“How different is this night from all the nights!” 


and continues to speak four further comments:

(1) Sheh-b’KHOL ha-lei-LOT anu okh-LIN KHA-mets u-ma-TSAH;

ha-LAI-lah ha-zeh kulo ma-TSAH. 

Because, on all nights we eat bread and matza.  This night we eat only matza. 

(2) Sheh-b’KHOL ha-lei-LOT anu okh-LIN sh’AR y’ra-KOT;

ha-LAI-lah ha-zeh ma-ROR. 

Because, on all nights we eat a variety of greens.  This night bitter herbs. 

(3) Sheh-b’KHOL ha-lei-LOT ein anu mat-bi-LIN afilu pa’am eh-KHAT;

ha-LAI-lah ha-zeh sh’tei pa’a-MIM. 

Because, on all nights we don’t food-dip even once.  This night twice. 

(4) Sheh-b’KHOL ha-lei-LOT anu okh-LIN BEIN yosh-VIN u-VEIN m’su-BIN;

ha-LAI-lah ha-zeh ku-LA-nu m’su-BIN. 

Because, on all nights we dine seated upright and reclining. 

This  night we are all reclining. 


The leader responds:

“When the Israelis fled Egypt, there was no time to bake bread.  And we know
also that leaven is a symbol of sin (1 Cor. 5:7).  The Exodus event was not only
a departure from Egypt but from sin as well.” 


A platter of three matzahs wrapped in a cover is lifted and this blessing is said:

“This is the bread of suffering, the bread of poverty, which our ancestors ate

in the land of Egypt.  Let the hungry come and eat; and all in need can share

in the meaning of Passover.” 


     The three matzahs represent tri-unity.  Many examples exist, but we see this
primarily representing the triune persons of God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. 

     The middle matzah is taken, and broken, symbolising the sacrificial death of
Christ, the Messiah.  The middle matzah thus represents God the Son when he
left heaven for earth.  The pierce marks in the matzah signify his bruisings and
stripes, which he endured for us; Is. 53:5.  One of the
matzah pieces is wrapped
in white cloth, just as Messiah’s body was wrapped for burial.  It is hidden and
will be brought out later, symbolising his resurrection.  The other piece is now
divided and distributed to all, with the blessing:

Ba-RUKH a-tah, a-do-NAI e-lo-HEI-nu, MEH-lekh ha-o’LAM,

Ha-mo-tsi LEH-khem min ha-AH-rets. 

“Blessed are you, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe,

who brings forth bread from the earth.” 


     Most green foods are good tasting but this night we eat only bitter herbs,
for we recall the bitterness of the Hebrews when they were slaves; Ex. 1:11-14. 
Bitter herbs (horseradish) can be put on pieces of matzah.  Lift a piece and say:

Ba-RUKH a-tah, a-do-NAI e-lo-HEI-nu, MEH-lekh ha-o’LAM,

a-SHER kid-SHO-nu bi-d’var-OH veh-tsi-VAH-nu ‘al ah-khi-LAT ma-ROR. 

“Blessed are you, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe,

who sets us apart by his word and commands us to eat bitter herbs.”   (All eat.) 


     We've dipped parsley into salt water once, and now we dip the second time,
the parsley into the kharoset; it is eaten with the kharoset on pieces of matzah. 
Lifting a piece of matzah with maror and kharoset, the leader gives a reminder
that bitter circumstances can be made sweet.    (All eat.) 


     This night we recline at ease because we once were slaves but now are free! 
Accordingly Jesus said: “Come to me, all you who labour and are heavy laden,
and I will give you rest” (Mt. 11:28). 



     Now is the explanation of Passover.  Exodus 12 can be read entire or can be
summarised and retold as the leader chooses; but this story must be told! 


     Cups are filled the second time (but not drunk).  All dip a finger in their cup;
a drop of wine ceremonially falls for each plague, recited in order and spoken
three times. 

Blood!   Frogs!   Lice!   Fly Swarms!   Cattle Disease!  

Boils!   Hail!   Locusts!   Darkness!   Firstborn Death!  


     The leader lifts the bone of lamb and explains that this is the main element of
Passover, and asks that Exodus 12:3,5-7 be read, or reads it himself.  The bone
of lamb represents the main meal of lamb meat; it also represents the blood of
the lamb, which was painted upon the doorways of the houses.  Regarding this
there is the reading of Exodus 12:8,11,13. 


     It is presently a tradition that lamb’s meat is not eaten at Passover, as a sign
of mourning for the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem.  Oftentimes another
meat is served instead.  This practice is nowhere found in the Bible however
so many celebrants choose to provide lamb’s meat.  In any case a lamb’s bone
is put on the Sèder Plate to remind us of the Passover Lamb. 


     A roasted egg is another addition to the Passover meal; it is the Kha-gi-GAH,
(meaning a special holiday offering).  It is round, picturing eternity, and a core
of life, signifying new birth.  It thus pictures the endless cycle of renewing life. 
But none of this is Biblical for the Exodus story.  The egg ought to be explained
if it is shown but there is no ceremonial blessing for it.  (Hard-cooked eggs can
be part of the meal, peeled and served with salt water in individual bowls.) 


     Psalm 145:7 should be read at this time and appropriate songs may be sung. 
Now all can join in the blessing:

“Blessed are you, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe, for in mercy

you have supplied all our needs.  You have given us the Messiah, the

forgiveness of sins, life abundant and life eternal.”   (All drink the second cup.) 

     The leader offers a prayer of thanks for the Sèder meal.  The Passover meal
may now be eaten, as said in Ex. 12:14, “You shall keep it as a feast.” 



     The Hidden Matzah is now brought back.  It is the Sèder dessert.  The Greek
name “afikomen” means “the one who came.”  This name was often applied to
Christ the Messiah by believers in the early church.  This Greek name was in-
troduced into the Passover Seder by the early Messianic Jewish believers.  It is
now time to share this middle matzah, as the dessert, again saying the blessing
over bread, and read Jesus’ words as he took this middle matza, and broke it,
saying, "This is my body which is given for you: do this in remembrance of me"
(Luke 22:19)… and the third cup of wine, saying, “This cup is the new covenant
in my blood which is shed for you” (Luke 22:19-20).  The blessing should again
be said for the wine, and all should drink the third cup. 


     Oftentimes there is a special cup for Elijah the Prophet, recalling the words
of Malachi 4:5, —a reminder that Messiah is returning soon.  (Scriptures are in
Matthew 11:14, Luke 1:17, John 1:29.)  The Jewish song, Eliyahu HaNavi, or any
song in honour of Elijah might be sung before the fourth cup is poured.  Then
the Hallel, the fourth cup of praise is blessed and all can drink of it.  And at last
there is the reading of Psalm 136:1-16,26. 


     The Passover Sèder is finished.  The traditional Jewish prayer is often voiced
at this
time: La-sha-NAH ha-ba’AH bi-ru-sha-LAI-yim! “Next year in Jerusalem.” 
Or we can say a prayer for Messiah’s return and the promised New Jerusalem. 
Passover is meant to be an occasion of joy, with good feelings.  Music or song
is appropriate after the Sèder meal in acknowledgement of a joyous occasion. 



Passover kharoset is made as follows:


2 tart apples, 1/2 cup walnuts, 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon,

1 teaspoon honey, 1 tablespoon sweet wine or grape juice. 


Core the apples (they need not be peeled).  Chop apples and walnuts together
until finely chopped.  Using a wooden spoon, stir in cinnamon, honey and wine
to make a thick
chunkey paste.  Serve on pieces of matza.  This makes enough
for ten or twelve people. 


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